|Portrait of Joseph Haydn - |
younger by Ludwig Guttenbrunn, ca. 1770.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Haydn's musical education began as being a choir boy at the St. Stephen Cathedral in Vienna. Still, the turning period inside his musical instruction has been the encounter with Porpora who tutored him singing and musical composition.
In 1757, Haydn penned his first quartets, op.1 and op.2. Those early creations created his fame inside the Viennese nobility. His primary consistent work had been proposed by Count Morzin in 1758. In 1761 he was hired by the Esterhazy family as music director at the castles of Eisenstadt and also Eszterhaza, palaces branded as "little Versailles". Both having two theaters. He remained in that standing up to 1790. Haydn has written for the Esterhazy all his operas, lots of symphonies and an important quantity of chamber music.
Joseph Haydn met with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the course of the winter months of 1781-1782. A significant companionship, full of shared appreciation will bind the two composers. In 1791, the year of passing of Mozart, Haydn, free from his engagements at the Esterhazy court, travels to London. He possessed a triumphal welcome. He authored the initial series of his "London Symphonies" (n.93 to 98). An additional stay in London, 1794-1795, again having a large achievement saw the publication and performance of six new "London" symphonies (n.99 to 104).
Returning to Vienna in 1795, Haydn composes a series of six Masses, a wide variety of string quartets, and most importantly, his two big Oratorios: "The Creation" and "The Seasons". His very last public appearance took place in 1808 on a public performance of his "Creation", this is an apotheosis. He will pass away the subsequent year.
Franz Joseph Haydn possessed a long, productive professional career, he had been a commendable composer with the completion of a sense of humor. His numerous production has embraced almost all types and types. Aside from the excellent symphonic works and the two delightful Oratorios one should not ignore the magnificent chamber music works; 68 string quartets, a good number of trios and "Divertimento"s. He also composed a variety of religious creations including the gorgeous "Last seven terms of Christ at the Crucifixion", cantatas, lieds and operas.
The piano works by J. Haydn, that felt a little bit neglected for a time, is now regaining favor among primary pianists. Performers like Wilhelm Backhaus, Lili Kraus, and Glenn Gould include mixed lots of sonatas and variations. Paul Badura-Skoda offers an "authentic" performance on a "pianoforte" of that epoch.
Inside the sizable productivity of Franz Joseph Haydn, compositions for the piano are solely overtaken in quantity by symphonies and string quartets. Compared with 106 symphonies and 68 quartets we have got "only" around sixty sonatas for the piano. The earliest ones are definitely meant for the "clavicembalo".
One needs to add into the list those pretty valuable works that are: the variations, a "Capriccio", a "Fantaisie" and particularly the 45 trios for piano, violin, and violoncello upon which the piano has got the best part.
Guaranteed, Joseph Haydn did not formulate the sonata form nor the symphony. But his expansion and emancipation of those musical types provided the style for all future composers. The constitutional frameworks produced by Haydn are even now alive. For this brilliant composer, the musical form had been by no means a pre-set rigid mold.
The "Haydn-Sonata" has by no means been a quickly arranged invention. The composer continually stated his references towards the "real" father of the sonata-form: Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Since the years 1760 the style of C. Ph. E. Bach, typical with its "Empfindsamkeit" (sensitivity) and rapidly changing moods did impress rather very much Haydn. Even so, the Austrian master did infuse in those surfacing musical forms and styles a coherence, a balance that had been missing inside his famous Nordic forerunner.
One additional powerful influence is Domenico Scarlatti, even though in no way referred to specifically by F.J. Haydn. This is often to some degree evident in the melodic melody lines, but Scarlatti did not adhere to the emancipation of the "sonata" musical form.
The "new" edition of Haydn's works, published in 1960 by Christa Landon, enumerates some 62 sonatas. Most of those cannot be genuinely attributed to Franz Joseph Haydn. The definitive listing made by Anthony van Hoboken is created on the Breitkopf und Hartel publication and chronology. This Hoboken directory is counting 52 sonatas for the piano.